Fear & Memory in the Brazilian Army & Society, 1889-1954. SHAWN C. SMALLMAN: The University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
The army exerted an enduringinfluence in Brazilian politics from the second half of the 19thcentury to the early 1980s. The range and scope of militaryintervention has been the subject of extensive academic debates, mostof which aimed at explaining the military coup of 1964 and the 21years of "bureaucratic authoritarian" dictatorship thatfollowed it. The roots of military intervention have been sought inmany aspects of the institution's life, in class alliances and itsrelationship with civilian allies.
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